We recognise “the Pro-life debate” or “the Pro-choice debate” as partisan rhetoric so instead we refer to “the abortion debate”.
We lapse when referring to the debate concerning “Free Speech”.
Perhaps we should say “the ethics of expression” or similar.

The elasticity of hermeneutics and the religion-culture indistinction are significant

Problems of Theism

-an interacting God with specific properties of omnipotence, omniscience and omnibenevolence-


• Theodicy and the Inconsistent triad
• The Evil God Hypothesis
• The Stone
• Free will/Omniscience

Unreliability of inner feeling

Cultural specificity of revelation; reconciliation of disagreement by the “equal weight view” predicts any one position’s falsity

Unreliability of scripture

Errors in holy books

Problems of Deism

-a non-interacting, mathematician/physicist creator-

Fallacy of composition

Regarding the “first cause”

Years later, we still hear people say that they dont know why anyone would have voted for Brexit.
Here are two reasons:

  • autonomy
  • immigration (including economic and cultural effects)

Brexit illustrated problems with:

(the psycho-social)
-healthy communication
-polarisation and attention, particularly twitterstorms and 24-hour news infotainment

(the epistemic)
-the perennial tension between democracy and expertise, particularly referenda and (mis/)informedness
-the general selection of experts for a given domain

(the axiological)
-the incommensurability of plural values, eg the economy and autonomy

  • Job skills (technical - including autodidactism - and social)
  • Happiness, through successfully navigating the world*
  • Wiser citizenship

*intrinsic enjoyment in learning/understanding is an optional bonus

Here I present Popper, Kuhn and Lakatos’ accounts of science and analyse their adequacy at solving the demarcation between science and non-science, known as the demarcation problem.

Science is a value-laden term denoting authority. Commanding trust and power owing to its success across many areas of human enterprise, the imprimatur of science guides social policy decisions in healthcare, environment, education and journalism. Pseudoscience, on the other hand, is a term of derogation referring to non-science beliefs and practices that are mistaken or false, and often harmful; typical examples include homeopathy and creationism. Pseudoscience goes beyond fraudulent data, the nature of…

A survey of issues:

Veganism, as a practice, prohibits “use” or consumption of animal “products”, motivated by opposition to these ostensible harms:
• Killing
• Slavery
• Suffering

By these aims, Veganism is an arbitrary selection of attention and not an ethical minimum of harm.

Here are some harmless non-vegan practices:
• Freeganism
• Vintage clothing
• Vegan food prepared with contaminated utensils
• Personally keeping rescue hens for eggs

Some vegan activities could be performed to such a degree as to swamp the harms caused by a mild non-vegan lifestyle:
• Products of deforestation eg palm oil, coltan

A survey of issues:

Factual disputes:

• puberty blockers
• desistance rates
• gender-affirmative care efficacy
• gender non-conformity — mental illness link, independent of societal transphobia
• malleability — voluntarism and conversion
• rapid onset gender dysphoria (ROGD)
• effects of psycho-social development in different genders
• athletic sex differences

Psychological Identity, Mental Illness and Children

Are there analogies to gender identity?
Consider clothing style eg being a Goth, sexual orientation, transracialism, transableism, trans-speciesism, transageism, left/right-handedness, body dysmorphia, body integrity disorder

What are our tolerances for unconventional beliefs and breaking social norms?
Should these be treated differently in minors?
What is a pathology?
When does non-conformity become…

A survey of issues:


Expected QALYs
Expected earnings
Fair innings argument (FIA)
Waitinglist suffering

Social payment and coverage

Wealth; consumed wealth; income
Agency; blame
Prophylactics; enhancements / transhumanism
Patient choice; placebo medicine
Health tourism
Anthropocentrism; pets and wild animals


Organ trade

Financial incentives

Appointment times
Privatisation; brain drain

A survey of issues:

Appearance / Reality

honesty / deception (identity; plans; knowledge)


uncertainty; stability; possession
loyalty; trust; conditional love; fungibility
relationship transition ethics


selfishness; fairness
investment (time; effort); desert

Free will

changing oneself; effort; success

Lover/Friend demarcation

boredom; decline; variety

State recognition

What principles govern the aims of Environmentalism?


Aims - The forms and recipients of harms

anthropocentrism; sentiocentrism; biocentrism; ecocentrism; sustainability and obligations to the future; impurity disgust

Methods - Social choices

democracy, autonomy and dark/light/bright greens; risk; fatalism; transition rate


Aims and Principles

What principles govern the aims of Environmentalism?

-Rights, including life and liberty; Utilitarianism; other ethical systems
-Property; the Lockean Proviso; the Tragedy of the Commons
-Anthropocentrism; ecocide; Moore’s Heap of Filth Argument
-Obligations to future organisms; Anti-natalism/Pro-mortalism
-Sustainability and impermanence; fatalism, extinction cycles and the heat-death of the universe

-Risk and action under uncertainty…


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